Grape vine

Grape vine

Vitis Vinifera or European Vine

Vitis vinifera also known as European vine is widespread in the Mediterranean basin. The first evidence dates back to ancient times. The Etruscans and the Romans already knew the Sangiovese grape. The Greeks offered the famous nectar of the to the Olympic champions after the victory. The grape vine is formed by a stem rooted in the ground, by the shoots, by the leaves and by the fruits called berries. When planting new vine plants for the production of bunches, it is necessary to resort to an American rootstock. The European one, in fact, is badly adapted to the attacks of phylloxera. The phylloxera, in fact, is an insect that caused considerable damage in Europe at the end of the nineteenth century. A huge amount of plants were destroyed. The American rootstock was found to be more resistant. It has strong roots and the stem is engraved and grafted with gems of the chosen vine.

Biological cycle of the grape vine

The life of the vines is characterized by two cycles: the life cycle and the annual cycle. The life cycle affects the entire survival time frame of the plant. As with humans, the plant goes through a period of youth, maturity and old age. The 1-3 year period is said to be unproductive. From 4-5 years of age, production will begin to grow from year to year. At some point the yield of the vines will be constant up to 20-25 years. Therefore, around the age of 40 the plant will begin to age and productivity will significantly reduce. The annual cycle is composed of the vegetative phases called phenological phases. The vine will begin to sprout around March. The shoots will stretch until August. In the meantime, the reproductive cycle takes place on them with the appearance of the flowers that will turn into grapes through the process of setting. The small green berries, which will become berries that will replace the flowers.

Wines and vines, a universe of wine to discover

The varieties of vines are innumerable. Enologically it is possible to go back to understand the vine through the features of the bunch and leaves. The vines can be divided into autochthonous or allochthonous. The first are those that have been planted in a specific region and only in its territory have they found the ideal conditions to express themselves at their best. Nebbiolo, for example, is a vine that only in Piedmont is able to give its best. The microclimate, the soil and the environmental conditions are the most suitable for producing excellent quality grapes. Attempts have been made to implant it in other regions but the results have been disappointing. The same goes for Prosecco, Lambrusco, Verdicchio and many others. The allochthonous vines, on the other hand, are varieties not linked to a specific territory. An example could be the international ones such as Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet and Syrah that manage to proliferate almost everywhere.

Vine grape: Characteristic adversities, harmful to the vine

The vine must be protected so that it can provide healthy grapes for an excellent wine. Unfortunately, the diseases and adversities it incurs are not few. Limiting these risks allows you to achieve the desired results. Adversities are divided into parasitic and non-parasitic. The former are due to the attack of viruses and insects that cause curly wood, leaf curling, curling. Fungi that can attack vines, on the other hand, are at the origin of diseases such as downy mildew and powdery mildew. Very often it happens that the bunches of grapes rot due to Botrytis. Finally, wasps, spider mites and leafhoppers also contribute to attacking the vines and their fruits. Non-parasitic adversities, on the other hand, concern weather conditions such as sudden frosts that block the development of shoots. Furthermore, drought does not allow the berries to develop adequately for the transformation of sugars.